Fertile period to get pregnant: symptoms and ovulation

When you want a baby it is very important to calculate ovulation and to know your fertile period. Here’s how to not get confused

Fertile period

When you want a baby and are looking for a pregnancy it is very important to know your fertile period , and to understand when there is ovulation, during which conception can take place. Knowing how your body, reproductive system and menstrual cycle works allows you to increase the chances of getting pregnant but also to try to avoid pregnancy. However, it is good to remember that if you do not want to have a baby it is very important to use a contraceptive instead of relying on the calculation of the days of ovulation.

What are the fertile days?

The most frequent questions that come to our midwife are those on how to get pregnant : “What are the fertile days? How can I identify them to get pregnant ?” “How can I understand when is the best time to have a baby?”. The term ” fertile days ” means the days in which the woman has ovulated and therefore the meeting between the egg and the sperm can occur. Typically this is five days which include those immediately before and immediately after the day of ovulation .

Ogino-Knaus method

To increase the chances of getting pregnant in the fertile period it is possible to calculate the fertile days with the Ogino-Knaus method , which is a probabilistic calculation method based on the duration of the cycle.

Let’s take a practical example: if the menstrual cycle lasts 28 days, ovulation will most likely occur on the 14th day of the month. The fertile days, therefore, will be those between the 12th and 17th day of the cycle.

In detail, if the cycle took place on May 1, for example, the fertile days will be those between 11 and 17 May, taking into account the possibility that ovulation does not occur exactly on the 14th day. All other days of the month are, theoretically, infertile days.

  •  In case of shorter or longer cycle

If the cycle lasts 21 days, so it is shorter than the average of 28 days, then ovulation will happen sooner. For example, if the first day of the cycle was May 30, the fertile period will be between 2 and 8 June (the days of maximum fertility will be those between 4 and 7 June).

If, on the other hand, the cycle is generally longer, for example 30 days, then these will be the fertile days: from 10 to 18 June with a peak of maximum fertility between 13 and 17 June.

How long does the fertile period last?

The fertile period lasts about 6/7 days , three before and three after the day of ovulation , which occurs when an egg is released from an ovary. That egg survives for up to 24 hours. However, the fertile period includes the time when the egg is fertile, but also the time when the sperm can wait for the egg. The fertile window then extends to several days. But clearly to increase the chances of getting pregnant you need to have intercourse as close to ovulation as possible.

Why does the fertile period last five days?

Ovulation occurs around the fourteenth day of the menstrual cycle, corresponding to an increase in the hormones LH and estrogen, and is the time when the oocyte is expelled from the ovaries.

The fertile period lasts a maximum of five days; spermatozoa can in fact survive in the uterus for 72 hours while the oocyte can only be fertilized within 24-48 hours.
As already mentioned, during a 28-day menstrual cycle ovulation usually occurs on the 14th day but in the case of longer or shorter menstrual cycles, the fertile period also changes .

calculate fertile days with an irregular cycle

Not all women have regular periods. In fact, in some cases there may be sporadic or frequent variations and irregularities that make the calculation of the fertile period more difficult . In these cases it can be useful to pay attention to certain signals and changes in our body. A technique for calculating fertile days with an irregular cycle could be the observation of cervical mucus, which changes color and consistency during the cycle. However, remember that it is not 100% reliable and safe. 

Symptoms of the fertile period

A lot of changes take place in our body in preparation for ovulation and we can become quite adept at reading these symptoms and knowing when we are ovulating.

  • Cervical mucus: far from the fertile days it may even be absent or in any case present in small quantities, in a more lumpy consistency. When we are about to ovulate, however, it becomes more stringy, abundant, liquid because it serves not only to create a more favorable vaginal environment for the sperm but also for the possible implantation of the embryo.
  • Basal temperature: our body temperature rises by 02, -0.5 degrees at ovulation, so if we measure the temperature for a few months in order to know what our standard temperature is, we can understand what the fertile period is, especially if we combine the analysis of cervical mucus with this measurement.
  • Tense and sore breasts is another typical symptom of oncoming ovulation
  • Pain and cramps in the lower abdomen : those who suffer from painful ovulation may feel the arrival of ovulation because they suffer from pain in the abdomen or even in the ovaries.

The most frequent signs that somehow indicate that ovulation is taking place are the following:  small pains in the ovaries, vaginal discharge, increased sexual desire, change in the appearance and texture of the breasts on fertile days.

There are also some fertile period methods and symptoms  that we can use to figure out the best time to  get pregnant faster .

Fertile period and cervical mucus

The cervical mucus during the fertile period , undergoes changes in the quantity and consistency. Generally the cervical mucus can appear sticky or creamy (sometimes it is completely absent) while in the fertile period, in the days of ovulation , the secretion is more abundant, transparent and watery and can extend up to 7/8 centimeters between the fingers. When ovulation has occurred, the cervical mucus becomes thicker, white and consistent until it reaches the next menstruation. Changes in cervical mucus are one of the most accurate indicators of fertile days therefore, if you are trying to become pregnant, it may be helpful to have sexual intercourse on the days when these changes are detected.

Calculation of the fertile period

There are other methods to obtain a more accurate calculation of the fertile period  and ovulation .

  •  Basal temperature

The method consists in calculating the changes in the basal temperature to establish the fertile period. The temperature should be measured in the morning before getting out of bed. Just remember that during the fertile period the temperature undergoes a peak and stabilizes at 37 ° C, remaining unchanged until the onset of the menstrual cycle. Three days after the temperature rises, the woman is in a highly fertile period. To identify the fertile days with this method, all you need is a thermometer and annotate the temperature variations daily. It must be borne in mind that this system does not allow us to know with certainty when the fertile days will be, but it can only indicate that ovulation has occurred.

How to get pregnant using sticks and tests to calculate ovulation? In the pharmacy it is possible to buy Ovulation Test Strips and digital systems useful for calculating a woman’s fertile period and evaluating the presence of some hormones responsible for ovulation. Thanks to them it is possible to identify exactly the fertile days. In Italy, the most popular tests are  Clearbule tests and Easy@Home strips. The functioning of the kit is based on the analysis of the LH hormone present in greater quantities in the urine at the fertile days. These tests can be unreliable if you have an irregular menstrual cycle.

Calculation of ovulation

Here is a quick review on the calculation of ovulation and fertile weeks in the case of a regular cycle lasting 28 days: 

  •  the first week immediately after the period is not fertile;
  •  the second week begins to be more interesting especially towards the tenth day. In an ideal ovulation calendar, the days between the 10th and 13th will be colored yellow
  • the most fertile days are concentrated in the third week , between the 14th and 18th, which will be colored red in a table;
  •  finally in the fourth week of the month , the one that precedes and then ends with the arrival of menstruation, you are no longer fertile: the ovulation process is completed and the ovum has now flaked apart

If, on the other hand, conception has taken place then the last two weeks of the month will see the embryo travel from the tubes to the uterus to implant. The first symptoms of pregnancy may appear , such as breast tension, abdominal cramps, mild nausea, some tiredness and sleepiness, some mild blood loss, called implantation loss. These are symptoms very similar to those of the so-called PMS, so they can also occur in the days leading up to menstruation.

Calculation of ovulation and nesting

The calculation of ovulation and nesting is connected to the ovarian cycle which is divided into three main phases:

  •  follicular phase
  •  ovulation
  •  luteal phase

The calculation of ovulation , which is the phase in which the follicle grows to burst by penetrating the ovarian wall, is fundamental for the fertilization of the egg. Once fertilization by the spermatozoon has taken place, after about three days, nesting takes place . The embryo, which from the zygote to the fifth-sixth day turns into a blastocyst, goes to nest in the uterus and in order to survive it needs to implant itself in the endometrium, which is the internal tissue of the uterus. 

For the calculation of the nesting it is therefore necessary to count about five to eight days after conception. It may happen that it also happens a little later, but always within a maximum of twelve days from conception, from the moment of fertilization. Among the most frequent symptoms of nesting are implantation losses, very light blood losses that should not be compared to menstruation.

Ovulation calendar

If you are looking for a pregnancy, it may be helpful to keep an ovulation calendar and a diary of your menstrual cycle to identify the most fertile time to try for a baby. Just mark in a table that shows the days of the month the date of arrival of menstruation and then go forward 14 days to mark in red or with an X the 4 fertile days between the 14th and 18th: those will be the fertile days , but we must also mark in orange the two days immediately preceding and the following ones because ovulationit may not even happen on the 14th day but maybe a little earlier or a little later. There are also some Apps that we can download on your smartphone and that allow you to make a precise calculation of the days of ovulation.

Fertility calendar

The fertility calendar is marked by the menstrual cycle: every woman goes through periods in which menstruation occurs, periods of fertility and periods with low probability of getting pregnant.For example, if the start date of the last cycle is December 30, 2016 and usually 28 days pass between one cycle and another, the fertility calendar according to the Ogino-Knaus system is as follows:

  •  December 30: first day of flow
  •  December 31 to January 7: infertile days
  •  January 8 to January 10: fertile days
  •  January 11 to January 15: very fertile days
  •  January 16: fertile day
  •  January 17: non-fertile day
  •  January 18 to January 21: infertile days and possible egg nesting plant losses
  •  January 22 to January 26: non-fertile days
  •  January 27: first day of subsequent flow

App to calculate the fertile period

To monitor ovulation and find most fertile days smartphones with a wide variety of App for Apple and Android.

developed in collaboration with qualified Medical Specialists. Among the available functions: ovulation monitoring, menstrual cycle management, fertility statistics and much more.

Non-fertile period

What are the infertile days? The decidedly infertile period is that of the first week after the menstrual cycle and the days preceding the arrival of menstruation. The ovum, in fact, in those days is not yet ready to be expelled from the ovaries. However, we must take into account that many factors can affect the regularity of ovulation: in women who are over 35, who take drugs, are stressed, for example, some anomaly in ovulation may occur, which can therefore occur before or after and therefore invalidate the calculation of fertile days.

Calculation not to get pregnant 

The menstrual cycle thrives on phases. The calculation starts from the first day of menstruation, usually both during and suffered the losses the woman is not fertile, after 14 days the basal temperature rises by about half a degree, the endometrium becomes thicker, estrogen and progesterone increase: preparing for ovulation. 

The ovary expels the egg that travels along the fallopian tubes and then towards the uterus whose environment is ready to accommodate a possible fertilized egg. If there was no conception, the endometrium begins to flake off and this material is then expelled with menstruation and everything starts again for the next cycle. 

So if the question is how to calculate infertile days we can answer that in normal conditions those not fertile are those immediately after menstruation or those immediately before the arrival of the period. 

However, we reiterate once again that, even if the woman’s body seems to function as a perfect mechanism, in reality you can never be sure that you are not fertile, because you may have ovulated twice, you may have anomalies in the cycle or irregularities and therefore the best way to avoid unwanted pregnancy is to use a contraceptive, such as a condom or birth control pill.

Fertile days after your period

After the onset of menstruation, you are not fertile because the ovaries have not yet begun to change to ensure the expulsion of the egg and the endometrium is still thin. After menstruation, the whole process begins again that will lead to new ovulation after a few days: the pituitary gland stimulates the production of the follicle-stimulating hormone FSH ) which in turn stimulates the development of some follicles that contain the egg cell and their production. of estrogen.

If you want to get pregnant  and have a regular cycle, the fertile days after your period  are between the 12th and 17th days of your cycle. Remember that women who have a shorter cycle can ovulate up to five days after their period, and since sperm can survive in the tubes up to five days later, they can also get pregnant during and immediately after menstruation.

So is it possible to get pregnant on non-fertile days? In most cases, in these very first days after the period it is very likely that you are not fertile, but in any case it is not certain: the cycle lasts, on average, 28 days but not in all women and not necessarily all. the months. It is not a perfect mechanism that repeats the same every month and some variables and external factors can influence ovulation and even the expulsion date of the egg.

What are the fertile days?

The term “fertile days” means the days in which the woman has ovulated and therefore the meeting between the egg and the sperm can occur. Typically this is five days which includes those immediately before and immediately after the day of ovulation.

What is the most fertile time to get pregnant?

The fertile period corresponds to the days when the chances of getting pregnant increase. In a regular cycle, the fertile period is between the 10th and 17th day of the cycle.

What are the most fertile days after my period?

If you want to get pregnant and have a regular cycle, the fertile days after your period are between the 12th and 17th days of your cycle. In the event of an irregular cycle, the fertile period changes.

How can you calculate the fertile period to get pregnant?

Fertile days can be calculated by monitoring your menstrual cycle for a few months. Otherwise, ovulation sticks can be purchased, basal body temperature measured or vaginal mucus analyzed

How long does a woman ovulate?

Ovulation is the moment when the follicle frees the oocyte (or egg cell) ready to be fertilized. Once out of the follicle, the oocyte survives in the tube for about 24 hours, which coincides with the period in which it can be fertilized by the spermatozi. If fertilization does not occur after 24 hours, the egg cell disintegrates.